3, December, 2013
SPOTLIGHT ON KNOWLEDGE

Spotlight on Publications: Pursuing a Green Economy in Latin America

The green economy is a development model based on principles of ecological economics and sustainability. Some countries have made substantial progress towards transforming specific sectors, with Latin America leading some of these efforts. The publications featured in this Spotlight provide information on how this has been achieved.

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THE GREEN ECONOMY IN LATIN AMERICA

The Vision of the Green Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean

The Latin American and Caribbean Economic System (SELA) is a regional intergovernmental organisation that groups 28 Latin American and Caribbean countries. This publication from the Permanent Secretariat of SELA provides an analysis of green economy and green growth within Latin American nations, with a focus on how countries in the region could develop a sustainable energy matrix, promote inclusive growth and reduce poverty. Readers from other regions may be particularly interested in the proposals and recommendations for the transition towards a green economy, since they provide an idea of some of the fundamental actions and steps required to support long-term policy.
 
Full citation: Sistema Económico Latinoamerica. 2012. The Vision of the Green Economy in Latin America and the Carribean. SELA, Caracas.
 

WATER IN THE GREEN ECONOMY

Blue Water Green Cities

A growing number of cities in Latin America and the Caribbean are struggling with problems of water scarcity, watershed pollution, inadequate provision of basic services, and increased incidence of flooding. These problems are compounded by a disconnection between different actors across neighbouring jurisdictions. This suite of publications document the World Bank’s Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) initiative – also known as the Blue Water Green Cities initiative – which has been supporting Latin American countries to address urban water challenges in a cleaner, more efficient and more equitable manner by working across sectors and spatial boundaries. Seven Latin American cities received technical and financial support under the IUWM. They are: Buenos Aires (Argentina), Bogota (Colombia), Sao Paulo (Brazil), Tegucugalpa (Honduras), Aracaju (Brazil) and Asuncion (Paraguay).
 
Full citation: World Bank. 2012. Water and a Green Economy in Latin America. World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, Washington, DC.
 

Briefing Note: A Regional Strategy for the Rio Bogota Project

Environmental assessments (EA) for large wastewater projects generally do not include a comprehensive analysis of broader water basin management issues. This Briefing Note describes the comprehensive EA carried out for the Rio Bogota Project in Colombia, considered an example of best practice and recommended for replication in other countries across the world. The EA for the US$487 million wastewater treatment and river works programme was carried out with funding from the World Bank Water Partnership Programme and will be of interest to readers from other regions since it involved a comprehensive study of a basin in the design of a water management system.
 
Full citation: Browder, G., Yee, C. 2010. Briefing Note: A Regional Strategy for the Rio Bogota Project. World Bank, Washington, DC.
 

Empowering Women in Irrigation Management: The Sierra in Peru

The World Bank implemented a pilot project in Peru to involve water user organisations in irrigation management in the highlands. A gender diagnostic tool was used to understand the various barriers that limit attendance and participation by women in training and meetings. This programme has improved women’s technical skills, self-esteem and position in water user organisations. It has also raised awareness among community members about women’s specific needs and expectations related to water management for irrigation. The project findings and outcomes clearly demonstrate that water management needs to be carefully tailored to the social and structural relations in any given region, and must constantly evolve to improve the participation of women in water quality management.
 
Full citation: De Nys, E. et al. 2013. Empowering Women in Irrigation Management: The Sierra in Peru. World Bank, Washington, DC.
 

Watersheds of Quito: A Consultancy to Bolster FONAG’s Contribution. Technical Report

The Fund for the Protection of Water (FONAG) is a private trust fund and organisation established in 2000 and is a successful example of a payment for environmental services scheme. This document reviews different elements of FONAG’s work, particularly its institutional structure and the mechanisms employed in its comprehensive watershed monitoring system. This document also describes the framework used by FONAG for carrying out economic, social and environmental evaluations and provides lessons for scaling-up or replicating the fund.
 
Full citation: Cannon, P., Hill, B. and McCarthy, C. 2010. Watersheds of Quito: A Consultancy to Bolster FONAG’s Contribution. Technical Report. USAID, Washington, DC.
 

Water and a Green Economy in Latin America

This document is a report of the international conference Water in the Green Economy in Practice: Towards Rio+20 featuring best practice from across the Latin America and Caribbean region. Case studies focus on water use and abuse in agriculture, industry, cities, and watershed management and include the design and implementation of a water sanitation and provision programme in Peru, the creation of a Water Cabinet in Guatemala, and an innovative pricing scheme in Colombia.
 
Full Citation: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Division of Natural Resources and Infrastructure. 2012. Water and a Green Economy in Latin America. United Nations, New York.
 

GREEN BUILDING

Building an Inclusive Green Economy for All: Opportunities and Challenges for Overcoming Poverty and Inequality

This report examines opportunities for developing countries to equally distribute the benefits of a green economy across all social classes. Energy efficient, low-income housing represents one such strategy for achieving economic growth coupled with environmental protection and social inclusion. This example is part of a broader compelling argument as to why a green economy must provide for the rich and the poor alike. Many Latin American countries are discussed throughout this report, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico.
 
Full citation: Poverty Environment Partnership. 2012. Building an Inclusive Green Economy for All: Opportunities and Challenges for Overcoming Poverty and Inequality. Poverty Environment Partnership, Washington, DC.
 

Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings. Policies and Actions: 2nd Edition

This publication contains a comprehensive analysis of green buildings in Mexico, highlighting the six-category process that was used to scale-up its green building industry: building codes, information, benchmarking, financial instruments, action for utilities, and capacity building. The most exciting project is a residential retrofit programme that will leverage international finance from NAMAs (see “The Road to NAMAs: Global Success Stories on Successful Climate Action” below), increasing the programme’s reach from 150,000 to 800,000 houses. The main lesson from this report is that policymakers can and should drive investment and market development by facilitating stakeholder discussions and creating coherent policy frameworks to support the growth of the green building sector.
 
Full citation: Managan, K. et al. 2012. Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings. Policies and Actions: 2nd Edition. Institute for Building Efficiency, Johnson Controls, Milwaukee, WI.
 

Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: The 2010 Infrascope

Big infrastructure projects, which include skyscrapers and planned communities, require massive capital flows by governments and private companies. Out of the 2008-2009 recession emerged a creative new way to bridge the financing gap and improve efficiency: bringing private funding into the mix through public-private partnerships (PPPs). Infrascope focuses on the capacity and political will of 19 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to implement PPP projects in the water, transport, and energy sectors. Chile, Brazil, and Peru are ranked as the top 3 countries for PPP implementation in Latin America; while Venezuela, Nicaragua and Ecuador come in last place. This publication will be useful for policymakers and private sector representatives interested in understanding the laws, regulations, institutions and practices that affect the environment for PPPs.
 
Full citation: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) & Economist Intelligence Unit (EUI). 2010. Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: The 2010 Infrascope. EUI, London.
 

Green Buildings Workbook: A Guide for IDB Practitioners

By comparing green and conventional buildings, for both new and retrofitted infrastructure, this workbook highlights the advantages of deploying green buildings in Latin America. The topics covered will be of particular interest for policymakers and practitioners interested in catalysing a green building industry, and include information on how climate change impacts buildings, payback calculations, design options, how to influence building codes, and certification schemes. Case studies from Latin America include public and private buildings, such as housing, libraries, shopping centres, hotels and medical and social centres from Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Panama.
 
Full citation: Inter-American Development Bank. 2012. Green Buildings Workbook: A Guide for IDB Practitioners. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC.
 

Green Mortgage Program: Infonavit – Mexico

The Green Mortgage Program is one of Mexico’s most successful initiatives supporting greener buildings and communities. It supports mostly low and middle-income families by financing their sustainable housing needs with low interest loans. This report offers a detailed presentation of the programmme’s design and achievements thus far, useful to any other country trying to emulate a similar green mortgage initiative.
 
Full citation: Infonavit. 2011. Green Mortgage Program: Infonavit – Mexico. World Habitat Awards Stage II.
 

Occupier Insight: Navigating Emerging Markets

According to the authors of this publication, the needs and brand awareness of multinational companies drive innovation in green building in developing and developed regions alike. Therefore, Latin America should work to attract these companies to their cities. The building markets in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela are analysed in detail. This report identifies six key areas – impact on total occupancy cost, quality of ownership, transparency, property rights, investment infrastructure, employee treatment, and level of corruption – that should be developed to attract big companies. All eyes are on developing regions as new building development opportunities race to catch up with urbanisation is these markets.
 
Full citation: Cushman & Wakefield. 2013. Occupier Insight: Navigating Emerging Markets. Cushman & Wakefield, New York.
 

Public Procurement of Energy Efficiency Services: Lessons from International Experience

Buildings consume vast amounts of energy and energy efficiency is emerging as a critical policy to help countries grow sustainably by balancing energy demand with minimal environmental impacts. This report highlights how and why energy efficiency is a win-win option, detailing the barriers and roadmaps to improve national-level leadership via progressive, coordinated policy design. Examples from Brazil and Mexico are mentioned throughout.
 
Full citation: Singh, J. et al. 2010. Public Procurement of Energy Efficiency Services: Lessons from International Experience. World Bank, Washington, DC.
 

The Road to NAMAs: Global Success Stories on Successful Climate Action

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are emerging as one of the United Nations’ newest funding mechanisms for projects reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including programmes that increase energy efficiency in buildings. This international funding mechanism is gaining momentum in developing countries and will likely drive building efficiency in low and middle-income communities and amongst small enterprises. Latin American countries discussed in this report include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay.
 
Full citation: Center for Clean Air Policy. 2012. The Road to NAMAs: Global Success Stories on Successful Climate Action. Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC.
 

Toward Sustainable Financing and Strong Markets for Green Building: Green Building Market and Finance in Mexico

This report analyses the main criteria for developing a green building market, concluding that Mexico must reform its financial policies for construction to comply with its goals to reduce carbon emissions and optimise the country’s natural resources. Furthermore, fiscal policies should highlight the economic benefits of green buildings and incorporate incentives to stimulate investment from experienced developers. This publication will be useful to readers interested in understanding how the promotion of green building development must take account of the dynamics of the existing housing and construction sectors.
 
Full citation: Diaz, L. 2007. Toward Sustainable Financing and Strong Markets for Green Building: Green Building Market and Finance in Mexico. Sinergia Capital, Mexico City.
 

World Green Building Trends: Business Benefits Driving New and Retrofit Market Opportunities in Over 60 Countries

This report is based on a 62-country survey of green building trends that included Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. An in-depth assessment of the Brazilian case shows that the country is poised for significant green building growth in both new buildings and retrofits up to 2015. Chile is highlighted as one of the top ranking countries with Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings, thanks largely to its early green building movement for energy savings and strong business case. This publication will be useful to readers interested in understanding how green building development has been achieved in a broad range of contexts, including legal requirements, financial arrangements and the social, environmental and economic benefits.
 
Full citation: SmartMarket. 2013. World Green Building Trends: Business Benefits Driving New and Retrofit Market Opportunities in Over 60 Countries. SmartMarket, Massachusetts.
 

RENEWABLE ENERGY

Assessing Reverse Auctions as a Policy Tool for Renewable Energy Development

By comparing British, Chinese, and Brazilian experiences with reverse auctions, this paper examines the effectiveness of this mechanism for driving large-scale renewable energy development. In the Brazilian case, the author examines how electricity auctions have been used to promote the development of non-hydro renewable resources and attract foreign investment. This comparative study will be useful to readers interested in understanding how reverse auctions have been implemented within very different contexts to achieve distinct goals; from privatisation to diversification of the national energy portfolio. The author concludes that while reverse auctions represent an effective mechanism for developing renewable energy at low-cost, auction design must safeguard underbidding and breach of contract.
 
Full citation: Cozzi, P. 2012. Assessing Reverse Auctions as a Policy Tool for Renewable Energy Deployment. The Center for International Environment & Resource Policy, The Fletcher School, Tufts University, Medford.
 

Analysis of Renewable Energy Incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean Region: The Feed-in Tariff Case

This paper analyses how Argentina, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua are using renewable energy feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. The paper describes the characteristics of a “low-risk” FIT, which is used as a benchmark to measure the design and performance of FITs in the aforementioned countries. Topics covered in the paper include interconnection, purchase, and dispatch requirements, standard contracts, contract length, rate setting basis, payment structure, commodities purchased, amount purchased, adjusting policy, caps and queuing.
 
Full citation: Jacobs, D. et al. 2013. Analysis of Renewable Energy Incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean Region: The Feed-in Tariff Case. In: Energy Policy 60: 601–610.
 

Climatescope 2012: Assessing the Climate for Climate Investing in Latin America and the Caribbean

This report compares the environment for climate-related investment in different Latin American countries based on four overarching parameters: the enabling environment; clean energy investment and climate financing; low-carbon business and clean energy value chains; and greenhouse gas management efforts. 29 country profiles from the region are provided, including an assessment of the relative strengths and weakness for each. Brazil, Nicaragua and Panama hold the top 3 spots, respectively, thanks to factors such as coherent national clean energy policy, the structure of the power sector, rural electrification targeting the poor, and overall clean energy generation, amongst others.
 
Full citation: Inter-America Development Bank (IDB). 2012. Climatescope 2012: Assessing the Climate for Climate Investing in Latin America and the Caribbean. IDB, Washington, DC.
 

Climate Change and Energy Policy in Chile: Up in Smoke?

This paper examines Chile’s energy and climate policy development from 1971 to 2007. Up until 2004, policy measures promoting the diversification and de-carbonisation of the national energy portfolio were fragmented and passive at best. However, after experiencing severe shocks to energy security and a doubling of carbon emissions despite failed goals, Chile began creating a coherent renewable energy policy framework and vision from 2004 onward. Its energy and climate policy performance improved in tandem – a valuable lesson for those looking to restructure their country’s energy framework.
 
Full citation: Mundaca, L. T. 2011. Climate Change and Energy Policy in Chile: Up in Smoke? In: Energy Policy 52: 235–248.
 

Grounding Green Power: Bottom-Up Perspectives on Smart Renewable Energy Policy in Developing Countries

The deployment of energy from renewable sources is accelerating in developing countries, and already accounts for a higher percentage of electricity generation than in the developed world. This report provides an in-depth analysis of “Smart Renewable Energy Policy” based on case studies of existing renewable energy policy in 12 countries from Latin America, Africa and Asia, including Brazil and Mexico. The report examines five key elements of smart renewable energy policy, discusses lessons learned and identifies key priorities for international support. This report will be useful to policymakers interested in developing a comprehensive strategy for deploying renewable energy.
 
Full citation: Weisher, L. et al. 2011. Grounding Green Power: Bottom-Up Perspectives on Smart Renewable Energy Policy in Developing Countries. The German Marshall Fund, Washington, DC.
 

Novel Approach for Decentralized Energy Supply and Energy Storage of Tall Buildings in Latin America Based on Renewable Energy Sources: Case Study – Informal Vertical Community Torre David, Caracas, Venezuela

This paper analyses an innovative decentralised power system based on wind energy and a pico pumped hydro storage system installed in a tall building in Caracas, Venezuela. Based on technical, economic and social analysis, the authors conclude that the system provides a cost-effective option for achieving efficiencies up to 35% with minimal impact on living conditions and safety issues. This paper will be useful to readers interested in understanding how renewable energy technology can contribute to a more diversified and secure electricity supply in an urban environment.
 
Full citation: Fonseca, J. A., Schlueter, A. 2013. Novel Approach for Decentralized Energy Supply and Energy Storage of Tall Buildings in Latin America Based on Renewable Energy Sources: Case Study – Informal Vertical Community Torre David, Caracas, Venezuela. In: Energy 53 (1) 93–105.
 

Renewables 2013 Global Status Report

This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the global renewable energy sector, covering everything from industry to policy in every region of the world. It explores Latin America’s regional status in terms of the development of renewable energy, drawing comparisons with other developing regions in every sector. It also provides information for developing countries on rural electrification and energy system transformation and contains an abundance of tables, charts and country rankings.
 
Full citation: Renewables for the 21st Century (REN21). 2013. Renewables 2013 Global Status Report. REN21, Paris.
 

Renewable Energy Auctions in Developing Countries

Drawing on case studies from Brazil, China, Morocco, Peru, and South Africa, this publication provides an essential read for policymakers in developing countries who are considering establishing or improving a renewable energy auction. In particular, this report will be useful to those interested in understanding the key components to running cost-efficient auctions, including strategies for promoting local development and attracting investments into the renewable energy sector.
 
Full citation: International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). 2013. Renewable Energy Auctions in Developing Countries. IRENA, Abu Dhabi.
 

Renewable Energy Sector Development in the Caribbean: Current Trends and Lessons from History

This paper examines four case studies of renewable energy developments by public utility companies and independent energy companies on the Caribbean islands of Grenada, Barbados, Jamaica and the Antilles. The authors find a number of differences between the structures and operations of national power sectors in these countries, in particular with regards to privatisation, regulatory oversight and government involvement. Reflecting on the lessons learned from these case studies, the authors identify key factors for creating an enabling environment for investment into utility scale such as market regulation, policy backing for the introduction of new technologies and tax credits.
 
Full citation: Shirley, R., Kammen, D. 2013. Renewable Energy Sector Development in the Caribbean: Current Trends and Lessons from History. In: Energy Policy 57: 244–252.
 

Rethinking Our Energy Future: A White Paper on Renewable Energy for the 3GFLAC Regional Forum

Amidst rising energy demand in Latin America, and the mounting investment it will require to meet it, the IDB presents a strong case positing Non-traditional Renewable Technologies (NRETs) as a competitive and sustainable alternative. However, given that NRETs differ substantially from conventional power generation technologies (cost structures, geographical location etc.), scaling up NRETS will require modifications to policy frameworks and the institutional environment. Costa Rica, Mexico and Uruguay are highlighted as strong regional leaders and there are major new developments underway in numerous other Latin American countries.
 
Full citation: Vergara, W., Alatorre, C., Alves, L. 2013. Rethinking Our Energy Future: A White Paper on Renewable Energy for the 3GFLAC Regional Forum. IDB, Washington, DC.
 

PAYMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

Charting New Waters: State of Watershed Payments 2012

This report tracks and compares various aspects of investments in watershed services – which include forestry PES schemes – with data from 200 programmes across 30 countries. The report covers Latin America as a region, presenting programme updates, transaction activity, and an outlook for the region. With some of the world’s best-known programmes, the region is innovating with concepts such as water funds and in-kind compensation, providing an interesting read for those wanting to find out more about how watershed service payment schemes are being adapted to local contexts.
 
Full citation: Bennett, G., Nathaniel, C., Hamilton, K. 2012. Charting New Waters: State of Watershed Payments 2012. Forest Trends, Washington, DC.
 

Conceptual Models for Ecosystem Management through the Participation of Local Social Actors: the Río Cruces Wetland Conflict

This publication demonstrates the importance of carrying out ecosystem mapping with participation from the stakeholders who share in its resources. In this case study, the symptoms of irresponsible use of a shared resource (chemical dumping in a river) resulted in the emigration of black-necked swans. Numerous stakeholders held different interests for river use and more thorough ecosystem planning should have been implemented. Therefore, this publication offers a warning as well as a potential tool for conflict resolution – an integrated conceptual model of ecosystem management.
 
Full citation: Delgado, L. E., Marín, V. H., Bachmann, P. L. and Torres-Gomez, M. 2009. Conceptual Models for Ecosystem Management Through the Participation of Local Social Actors: the Río Cruces Wetland Conflict. In: Ecology and Society 14(1) 50.
 

Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001–2010)

This article discusses how deforestation undermines the critical benefits of biodiversity, global carbon budgeting, and ecosystem functions in Latin America and the Caribbean. From 2001-2010, in the Caribbean, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Haiti led in forest gain, while Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica lost the most forest cover; in the case of Latin America, Mexico, Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador, Venezuela, and Columbia led in forest gain, while Guatemala, Nicaragua, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay lost the most forest cover. Reforestation (including shrub) in said regions typically occurred in marginalised lands (e.g. mountains, deserts, etc.), while deforestation was primarily driven by global demand for increased agriculture production (e.g. soy, cattle, etc.).
 
Full citation: Mitchell Aide, T. et al. 2012. Deforestation and Reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001–2010). In: Biotropica 0 (0) 1–10.
 

Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation: Lessons Learned from Costa Rica and Mexico

This report provides examples of best practice for countries interested in developing market-based mechanisms that put a value on carbon stored in their forests. Though a lot has changed in REDD programmes since this report was drafted, the lessons learned in the case studies from Costa Rica and Mexico remain valid, highlighting the considerations that should be made during the design stage of such initiatives, including monitoring and reporting methodologies, property rights, institutional capacity, benchmarking, data analysis, and pilot project development.
 
Full citation: Karousakis, K. 2007. Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation: Lessons Learned from Costa Rica and Mexico. OECD, Paris.
 

Lessons Learned for REDD+ from PES and Conservation Incentive Programs: Examples from Costa Rica, Mexico, and Ecuador

Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico have extensive experience implementing payments for ecosystem services (PES) and conservation incentive programmes. An international conservation incentive scheme started by the UN, the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD or REDD+ with conservation, sustainable forest management, and improved forest carbon stocks), has many overlapping goals with the aforementioned domestic programmes. This publication explores 29 key lessons drawn from these Latin American experiences, covering such diverse issues as engaging the private sector, identifying opportunities for cost-efficiency, investing in human capital, evaluating trade-offs, and strengthening legal, policy and governance frameworks.
 
Full citation: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and The World Bank. 2012. Lessons Learned for REDD+ from PES and Conservation Incentive Programs: Examples from Costa Rica, Mexico, and Ecuador. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and The World Bank, Washington, DC.
 

Payments for Ecosystem Services: Legal and Institutional Frameworks

This paper combines legal and institutional analysis to construct a practical framework for PES schemes in Latin America. Findings are supported with on-the-ground evidence from Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru with annexes offering in-depth country-level analysis. Topics covered include legal frameworks, property rights, enabling institutions, contract issues, and governance.
 
Full citation: Greiber, T. 2009. Payments for Ecosystem Services: Legal and Institutional Frameworks. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the Katoomba Group, Gland.
 

Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started

As well as providing a broad introduction to ecosystem services and pro-poor conservation strategies, this report lays out a step-by-step approach to creating a PES scheme, covering the following broad categories: (1) Identifying ecosystem service prospects and potential buyers; (2) Assessing institutional and technical capacity; (3) Structuring agreements; and (4) Implementing PES agreements. Examples from Latin America (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru) are incorporated throughout the report.
 
Full citation: Katoomba Group, Forest Trends, UNEP. 2008. Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started. Katoomba Group, Forest Trends, UNEP, Nairobi.
 

Payments for Ecosystem Services as a Potential Conservation Tool to Mitigate Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

This report provides an assessment of the potential effectiveness of PES schemes in the Brazilian Amazon to mitigate deforestation, analysing social and economic factors such as policies, institutions and community diversity. The paper concludes, as many others do, that PES effectiveness is “context-specific” and, as such, PES schemes must be designed based on careful consideration of the drivers of deforestation, property rights and the needs and priorities of local communities, among other factors. Lastly, the authors address a gap in current research by offering original observations regarding the potential effects of market-based schemes on local populations.
 
Full citation: Dennis, K., Riper, C., Wood, M. 2011. Payments for Ecosystem Services as a Potential Conservation Tool to Mitigate Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Applied Biodiversity Sciences Perspectives Series, Tamu College Station, TX.
 

Payments for Water Ecosystem Services in Latin America: Evidence from Reported Experiences

This paper compares the key features of PES schemes from 10 Latin American countries based on findings from 39 studies. Forest conservation and management is identified as the driving force behind most PES programmes in Latin America, which are usually initiated by local NGOs and governments. With the caveat that PES is not a silver bullet for deforestation, the authors of this report offer recommendations to countries looking to tailor Latin America’s regional experiences to their unique country context.
 
Full citation: Martin-Ortega, J., Ojea, E., Roux, C. 2012. Payments for Water Ecosystem Services in Latin America: Evidence from Reported Experiences. Basque Centre for Climate Change, Bilbao Biskaia.
 

State of the World’s Forests 2012

Under the premise that forests play crucial roles for both the global economy and environment, this report posits forest-related services as key inputs to sustainable production and consumption systems within human societies. Similarly, the report posits the green economy approach (low-carbon, resource-efficient and socially inclusive) as an appropriate model for expanding opportunities to disadvantaged populations. The history and future of forest use in the Americas are analysed and many countries are discussed, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela.
 
Full citation: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2012. State of the World’s Forests 2012. FAO, Rome.
 

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