13, May, 2013
SPOTLIGHT ON KNOWLEDGE

Spotlight on Publications: Smallholder Farmers and Rural Development

The publications presented below represent some of the key resources dealing with a variety of issues related to rural development and small-scale farming in Latin America.

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MARKET ACCESS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Contract Farming: Partnerships for Growth

Based in part on individual country case studies, including from Colombia and Guyana, this guide aims to offer useful suggestions to companies and policymakers to make the most of contract farming. It begins by describing how structural changes have provided an impetus for new developments in the contract farming field; for example, evidence from Central America shows how multinational corporations have started buying bananas from local producers that get technical assistance from the corporation, instead of producing it by themselves. The guide reviews five main contract types and clearly describes how they work and explains different regions’ experiences with the different models, including Latin America and beyond. It then proposes conditions which could lead to improvements in the effectiveness of contract farming.
 
Full citation: Eaton, C., Shepherd, A. 2001. Contract Farming: Partnerships for Growth. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 145. FAO, Rome.
 

Linking Agribusiness and Small-scale Farmers in Developing countries: Is There a New Role for Contract Farming?

After the economic liberalisation that followed the structural adjustment policies in Latin America and elsewhere, a new context of agriculture emerged, where industrialisation of agriculture and the globalisation of world markets play a vital role. As this paper shows, although this new context has brought challenges, as higher transaction costs could imply higher coordination levels and several market failures, it has also meant new opportunities. Beginning in 1945 during import substitution, the paper describes the features of contract farming in Latin America and other regions over time. The paper then seeks to give responses to this new context, so that the situation facing smallholder farmers can be better understood and improved.
 
Full citation: Kirsten, J., Sartorius, K. 2002. Linking Agrobusiness and Small-Scale Farmers in Developing Countries: Is there a New Role for Contract Farming? Development Southern Africa 19(4) 503-529.
 

The Promise and the Perils of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Lessons from Latin America

This report assesses the impacts on agriculture in Latin America of the economic liberalisation that followed the Washington Consensus policies. While these new policies facilitated a dramatic increase in agricultural trade, the authors argue that they did not lead to sustainable rural development. Based on analysis of seven case studies, the report argues that the achievement of sustained rural development cannot be based on a framework of indiscriminate liberalisation policy. This document is particularly useful as it offers concrete agriculture policy suggestions, including about small-scale agriculture, to governments and international financial institutions. Furthermore, it uses the World Development Report 2008 to link the Latin American experience in these issues with that of Sub-Saharan Africa.
 
Full citation: Pérez, M., Schlesinger, S., Wise, T. 2008. The Promise and the Perils of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Lessons from Latin America. Washington Office on Latin America, Washington, DC.
 

Smallholder Participation in Agricultural Value Chains: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents

This paper analyses the extent to which smallholder farmers participate in the process of modernising agricultural value chains. To do so, the authors assess value chains in five countries across three continents (India, Ghana, Mozambique, Madagascar, and Nicaragua) in order to document patterns of smallholder participation, the benefits of participation and the reasons smallholders may not participate. The benefit of the paper is that the comparison across countries helps highlight general patterns rather than focusing on the individual experiences that are specific to one country or another.
 
Full citation: Barrett, C. et al. 2010. Smallholder Participation in Agricultural Value Chains: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents. Paper prepared for the workshop Institutional Innovations and Policy Interventions in Support of Smallholder Market Participation, United Nationals Food and Agricultural Organization, June 3-4, 2010, Rome.
 

TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

Rural Development and Territorial Dynamics in the Province of Misiones, Argentina

This research could prove useful for African and Asian actors in the area of small-scale farming since it helps to illuminate aspects of the current debate in Latin America about rural social change and development. It explores the relationship between rural development strategies and the construction of new territories. The author is specifically interested in the discourses that different rural development actors have, as well as in the practical consequences of ‘alternative’ rural development interventions on smallholder agriculture. This case study will be a particularly useful tool to understand the design and implementation of territorial rural development policies, as it encourages the reader to consider the diverse range of interests and power structures that characterise the Latin American context where it occurred.
 
Full citation: Nardi, M.A. 2011. Rural Development and Territorial Dynamics in the Province of Misiones, Argentina. Lund University, Lund.
 

Rural Territorial Development

The rural development policies that have been implemented in Latin America over the last four decades have had little effect on rural poverty. This situation has led to the opinion that to attain positive results, a radically different approach must be adopted. Over the past ten years, the territorial approach to rural development has found its place as an important trend in the regional debate on rural development. This document aims to contribute to this ongoing debate, discussing the challenges of modern rural development, analysing theoretical inputs to make rural territorial development more consistent, and providing conceptual definitions of the approach.
 
Full citation: Schejtman, A., Berdegué, J. A. 2004. Rural Territorial Development. Rimisp, Santiago de Chile.
 

Rural Territories in Motion: Rural Territories Dynamics Program Final Report

The Latin American Centre for Rural Development (RIMISP) is a Latin American organisation focused on the promotion of rural development. One of its most important projects is the Rural Territorial Dynamics Program (RTD). This report systematises the RTD experience across several years, and includes in-depth research conducted across a number of Latin American countries. It also focuses on key cross-cutting issues, like gender. The most important feature of this systematisation is that it shows policymakers clear evidence about what has and has not worked in terms of achieving positive rural development outcomes.
 
Full citation: RIMISP. 2012. Rural Territories in Motion: Rural Territories Dynamics Program – Final Report 2007-2012. RIMISP, Santiago de Chile.
 

Territorial Diversity and Inclusive Growth: Development Dynamics in the Jiquiriçá Valley, Northeast Brazil

Using a case study of a Brazilian example of positive development consolidation based on family farming, this document aims to answer two basic questions: first, what determines successful territorial development? And second, what sort of interventions can be more effective in helping to achieve it? The authors examine the interrelationship of exogenous and endogenous factors that determine particular development trajectories, concluding that it was mainly access to productive land and markets, as well as the impacts of progressive social policies that led to positive outcomes in the Brazil context.
 
Full citation: Quan, J., Ruiz Olalde, A., Rocha Sousa, V. 2011. Territorial Diversity and Inclusive Growth: Development Dynamics in the Jiquiriçá Valley, Northeast Brazil. Working Document N° 72. Rimisp, Santiago de Chile.
 

Toward a Territorial Approach to Rural Development

This paper focuses on understanding and promoting successful experiences in rural Latin American development. The authors describe how Latin America is characterised by a scenario where social development – measured broadly by education and health access – has largely improved, however poverty and inequality have not. After reviewing some successful rural development experiences, the paper demonstrates how a territorial approach to rural development can be a solution to the region’s social development and poverty paradox.
 
Full citation: De Janvry, A., Sadoulet, E. 2007. Toward a Territorial Approach to Rural Development. eJADE: Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics 4(1) 66-98.
 

RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Agricultural and Rural Development Policy in Latin America: New Directions and New Challenges

This document describes changes in Latin American agricultural policy since the structural adjustment reforms of the 1990s. In addition, it provides some useful suggestions about new agricultural policy instruments. It describes the current situation from an optimistic point of view, helping readers assess the possibilities for a more effective agriculture policy within a framework of huge macro-level policy reforms. Although written in 1997, the publication is still relevant as it not only explains a particular moment of Latin American history related to agriculture, but emphasises the short-term effects of the neo-liberal reforms of that era.
 
Full citation: De Janvry, A., Key, N., Sadoulet, E. 1997. Agricultural and Rural Development Policy in Latin America: New Directions and New Challenges. FAO Agricultural Policy and Economic Development Series – 2. FAO, Rome.
 

Assets, Activities and Rural Income Generation: Evidence from a Multicountry Analysis

This paper examines the links between assets and the economic activities of rural households in developing countries in order to analyse how the promotion of certain key assets such as education, land, and infrastructure influences the economic choices of these households. Nationally representative data from 15 countries which form part of the FAO’s rural income-generating activities (RIGA) database are used in the analysis, including four countries from Latin America: Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Panama. The authors show how improved land access is linked to agricultural production, and higher levels of education and greater access to infrastructure both appear to be most closely linked to non-agricultural wage employment. This research may be of interest to researchers in developing countries looking for an in-depth analysis of rural development issues that compares Latin America with other regions of the world.
 
Full citation: Winters, P. et al. 2009. Assets, Activities and Rural Income Generation: Evidence from a Multicountry Analysis. World Development 37(9) 1435–1452.
 

The Outlook for Agriculture and Rural Development in the Americas: A Perspective on Latin America and the Caribbean 2011-2012

This edition of the Outlook Report presents the most updated data and figures on agriculture and rural development within Latin America and the Caribbean. The information and analysis is organised into four main sections: macroeconomic context; sector-specific analysis; rural well-being and institutional frameworks; and use of ICTs in agriculture and rural development. Although the authors do not present a deep nor exhaustive academic analysis for each of those sections, the document still provides useful information about the region overall and is presented in an easy to understand, objective way.
 
Full citation: ECLAC-FAO-IICA.2011. The Outlook for Agriculture and Rural Development in the Americas: A Perspective on Latin America and the Caribbean 2011-2012. IICA, San José.
 

Rural Development in Latin America: Trends and Policies

Written in the context of a profound transformation of the rural sector in Latin America, this paper attempts to provide analytical tools and background information about the region’s rural areas that may be useful when exploring economic and collaborative relationships between Latin America and the European Union. After showing the importance of agricultural production to rural life, the paper describes the evolution of the rural sector and the present situation, as well as the evolution of the theory and practice of different rural development approaches and policies.
 
Full citation: Piñeiro, M. 2005. Rural Development in Latin America: Trends and Policies. Paper prepared as a background document for the EC.IDB Rural Development Dialogue, Brussels, 24 February 2005.
 

Transforming the Rural Nonfarm Economy: Opportunities and Threats in the Developing World

This short report offers interesting background on Latin America’s rural economy and that of other regions as well. Nonfarming activities comprise an important part of the income of rural families in Latin America (47%), and its importance has grown rapidly over time, so that for every dollar generated in agriculture, between 0.3 and 0.5 dollars of non-farm income is generated. This report characterises the rural non-farm economy according its size and composition, and offers a discussion of equity issues. It is a useful resource for researchers and policymakers for its exploration of the dynamics of the rural economy, the challenges it faces and policy implications.
 
Full citation: Haggblade, S., Hazell, P., Reardon, T. 2009. Transforming the Rural Nonfarm Economy: Opportunities and Threats in the Developing World. Issue Brief 58. IFPRI, Washington, DC.
 

World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development

This World Development Report takes as its starting point the idea that poverty in developing countries is deeply intertwined with the rural reality and that agriculture is an essential development tool to alleviate extreme poverty and hunger. This report, aimed at governments and the international community, could be a useful tool for policymakers and practitioners as a guide for the design and implementation of agriculture-for-development policy agendas. Though focused on many different regions, it provides readers with access to trends and developments specific to the Latin American context. For example, the authors find that in highly urbanised contexts like those in Latin America, smallholder farmers have the possibility of improving their livelihoods by becoming direct suppliers of dynamic markets. Nevertheless, the region’s high rate of land inequality is identified as a major constraint for smallholder farmers’ participation in the market.
 
Full citation: World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development. World Bank, Washington, DC.
 

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY

Agricultural Productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean and Sources of Growth

This chapter from the Handbook of Agricultural Economics analyses the increase in productivity in the agricultural and livestock sector in Latin American and Caribbean countries between 1961 and 2001. The first part of the chapter examines economic indicators related to productivity growth, as well as to food demand and population growth. It then highlights some of the sources of the documented productivity growth in the region, such as agricultural research, rural extension, schooling and nutrition.
 
Full citation: Dias, A., Romano, L., Garagorry, F. 2012. Agricultural Productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean and Sources of Growth. In: Evenson, R., Pingali, P. (eds.) 2010. Handbook of Agricultural Economics. Elsevier, London.
 

Agricultural Productivity Growth, Efficiency Change and Technical Progress in Latin America and the Caribbean

This paper examines the agricultural productivity growth in Latin America and the Caribbean between 1961 and 2007, using a methodology of parametric decomposition called the Malmquist Index. The results demonstrate that among developing countries, Latin America and the Caribbean have the highest agricultural productivity growth, and that the highest growth rate has occurred during the last two decades. Additionally, it provides sector-specific information for crops and livestock. Finally, it examines the cases of Brazil and Cuba to illustrate how agricultural productivity can be influenced by changes in economic policy and external shocks.
 
Full citation: Ludena, C. 2010. Agricultural Productivity Growth, Efficiency Change and Technical Progress in Latin America and the Caribbean. IDB Working Paper Series No. IDB-WP-186. IDB, Washington, DC.
 

Institutions and Agricultural Productivity in Mercosur

This document estimates agricultural productivity in Mercosur, an important regional trading and cooperation group in South America. The study includes both original member countries and later associates (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela), and covers the years 1972 to 2002. The authors find that all member countries experienced growth in their agricultural productivity, with Brazil leading the statistics. In the study, the authors analyse the role played by institutions, such as investments in public health and agriculture, and by the overall international environment relating to trade and economics, on the growth performance across these countries.
 
Full citation: Bharati, P., Fulginiti, L. 2007. Institutions and Agricultural Productivity in Mercosur. Lilyan E. Fulginiti Publications, Paper 3. Agricultural Economics Department, University of Nebraska, Nebraska.
 

REALITY OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS

Farm Size

This study looks at changing patterns in the distribution of farm sizes across countries and over time. It analyses how the interaction between the natural environment, economic development and the behaviour of individual economic actors affect farm size, and how national and international policy actions have altered these processes. Results suggest that as economic development advances, family farm size will rise, while its efficiency advantage over the agroindustrial sector will decline. The historical perspective of the study sheds light on the processes of land reforms and farmland collectivisation that affected many Latin American countries. In addition, the research provides useful comparison between the Latin America region and other contexts.
 
Full citation: Eastwood, R., Lipton, M., Newell, A. 2010. Farm Size. In: Evenson, R., Pingali, P. (ed.) 2010. Handbook of Agricultural Economics. Elsevier, London.
 

The Future of Small Farms

This volume brings together the papers, presentations, discussants’ remarks and additional information coming out of the international research workshop ‘The Future of Small Farms,’ held at Wye, England, June 26-29, 2005. This workshop contributed to discussions regarding the productivity of smallholder farming, market opportunities, the strategic role of non-farm complementary activities, and the policy framework and political context. Although is not exclusively focused on Latin America, this document can shed light on the debate around smallholder farming as well as contribute to informed policymaking for pro-poor growth strategies in developing countries in Latin America and beyond.
 
Full citation: IFPRI, ODI & Imperial College. 2005. The Future of Small Farms: Proceedings of a Research Workshop. June 26-29, 2005, Wye, UK.
 

Latin America: The State of Smallholders in Agriculture

The smallholder or family-based agriculture sector comprises approximately 15 million family farms in Latin America and the Caribbean, controlling about 400 million hectares of land. This paper aims to explore the state of family farmers in Latin America in a context of increasing opportunities and incentives, but also constraining inequalities. In particular, it includes an in-depth study of eight countries in the region. In addition to the social analysis, the report points out specific challenges and opportunities that may be of particular interest for decision makers in other regions..
 
Full citation: Berdegué, J. A., Fuentealba, R. 2011. Latin America: The State of Smallholders in Agriculture. Paper presented at the IFAD Conference on New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture 24-25 January. Breakout session 3. IFAD, Rome.
 

Low-Input Intensification in Agriculture: Chances for Small-Scale Farmers in Developing Countries

This paper tries to find out which is the best way of improving small-scale farming production through the review of several cases, including some from Latin America. The analysis suggests the importance of the system as a whole, meaning the starting point, in order to enhance higher productivity among smallholder farmers, is to improve the agricultural production systems that already exist, such as rainwater harvesting or organic farming. The main recommendation is that to improve small scale farming, it is best to scale-up from the farmers’ experience with low-input production, and not the opposite.
 
Full citation: Meyer, R. 2010. Low-Input Intensification in Agriculture: Chances for Small-Scale Farmers in Developing Countries. GAIA – Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 19(4) 263-268(6).
 

LAND USE AND RIGHTS

Biofuel Partnerships: From Battleground to Common Ground? The Effects of Biofuel Programs on Smallholders’ Use of Land and Rights to Land in Four Countries

Biofuel production has expanded rapidly in recent years. Alongside its potential opportunities, concerns have arisen over its role in increasing food prices and its impact on access to land for smallholders. In this context, this report seeks to identify the practices and policies that favour smallholders securing land rights and their inclusion in value chains that benefit them. Six case studies – from Honduras, Brazil, Indonesia and the Philippines – help the authors analyse how diverse processes of smallholder inclusion in different production models have taken place, and how this inclusion has impacted their land use and rights.
 
Full citation: Quiñónez, J. et al. 2012. Biofuel Partnerships: From Battleground to Common Ground? The Effects of Biofuel Programs on Smallholders’ Use of Land and Rights to Land in Four Countries. Funder, SNV, Agroenhsa, Repórter Brasil, Lembaga Gemawan, AFRIM, Cordaid, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Hague.
 

Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America

This edited volume brings together results of a number of research efforts and conferences analysing a variety of issues related to women’s land rights and access throughout the region. Issues include a discussion of land tenure in communal territories, principally using a comparative analysis of Bolivia and Guatemala; an assessment of the relationship between land ownership and questions of economic development; and questions related to territorial development, indigenous people and environmental issues. The final chapters of the volume also include the results of regional discussion forums held in recent years.
 
Full citation: Deere, C., Lastarria-Cornhiel, S., Ranaboldo, C. 2013. Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America. International Land Coalition, La Paz.
 

CASE STUDIES

Aquaculture and Rural Livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon: Systems of Innovation and Pro-Poor Technology Development

This PhD thesis studies pro-poor agricultural innovations in rural aquaculture development in indigenous territories of the Bolivian Amazon. It is argued that an indigenous-species aquaculture can help to integrate development with conservation efforts in the region. The thesis suggests that the strategies to achieve development outcomes and poverty reduction can be focused on supporting small and medium-scale aquaculture in areas with access to existing markets, developing institutional support to provide inputs and credit, and building producer associations for product marketing.
 
Full citation: Canal, E. 20120. Aquaculture and Rural Livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon: Systems of Innovation and Pro-Poor Technology Development. PhD Thesis. University of East Anglia, Norwich.
 

The Compatibility of Agricultural Intensification in a Global Hotspot of Smallholder Agrobiodiversity (Bolivia)

This paper tries to understand how biodiversity conservation and agricultural intensification could be complementary to each other.To do so, it studies a Bolivian case where although corn has been intensified as a commercial crop, biodiversity has continued to exist at a high level. The explanation for this success are the linkages between off-farm migration; resource access and asset capabilities among both traditional and non-traditional growers; land agroecology and food uses; and innovative knowledge and skills.
 
Full citation: Zimmerer, K. 2012. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Arizona State University, Tempe.
 

From Propietario to Empresario: A Case Study of Farmer Innovation in Ica, Peru

This is an in-depth study of a home-grown agricultural innovation in modern drip irrigation technology in Rancheria, a community of small-scale farmers in Ica, Peru. The author traces the historical and social factors that propelled the technology and its adoption by the farmers, and analyses how this farmer-led innovation has provided benefits that traditional agricultural research and extensions programmes could not achieve. To complement the analysis, it compares Rancheria with a neighbouring village to see how similar historical experiences manifested themselves differently in each community. Given the prevalence of top-down transfer of technology in agricultural development discourse and practice, this study emphasises the need for understanding how local knowledge systems and farmers’ capacity for innovation and experimentation has shaped development processes and social changes at the community level.
 
Full citation: Weintraub, E. 2012. From Propietario to Empresario: A Case Study of Farmer Innovation in Ica, Peru. Master of Arts Thesis. University of Miami.
 

Guatemala and Integrated Rural Development: Towards Inclusive Growth in the Rural Sector

Under the premise that land distribution is a significant factor in promoting inclusive economic growth, this policy brief analyses whether a redistributive land reform is viable in one particular Central American country, Guatemala. Guatemala is chosen as a case study because it has both severe land inequality and, at the same time, highly advanced legislation relating to rural development (through its Integrated Rural Development Law). The author highlights some of the challenges faced in the Guatemalan context and considers alternatives for improving performance.
 
Full citation: Barryl, B. 2012. Guatemala and Integrated Rural Development: Towards Inclusive Growth in the Rural Sector. Research brief December/2012 no.37. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, Brasilia.
 

The Impact of Fair Trade on Banana Producers in Northern Peru

This impact study is quite unique as it uses econometric strategies to measure the difference in income between a farmer who fulfils Fair Trade requirements and one who does not. The main advantage of this strategy is that with the gathered information it is able to replicate what would have happened or how the production chain would have changed without Fair Trade compliance. The results show a clear and positive impact of Fair Trade certification, which the authors argue stems from the higher prices earned for their products, as well as productivity improvements that come with the investments they made in order to comply with the new certification standards.
 
Full citation: Fort, R., Ruerd, R. 2008. The Impact of Fair Trade on Banana Producers in Northern Peru. In: Ruerd, R. (ed). The Impact of Fair Trade. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Hague.
 

International Standards and Small-Scale Farmer Behaviors: Evidence from Peru

This paper focuses on how small-scale farmers react in the face of more rigorous certification standards for food quality in order to enter into international markets. Through a case study of the Peruvian mango sector, the authors identify three main farmer responses – staying and complying with the standards, switching to another sector, or leaving the market. These responses are discussed in detail, and the author presents concluding analysis. This publication will be particularly useful to anyone interested in understanding how small-farmers react to opportunities for international market integration, as well as those seeking to better understand the Peruvian context.
 
Full citation: Lemeilleur, S. 2012. International Standards and Small-Scale Farmer Behaviors: Evidence from Peru. Working paper Moisa 2012-4. CIRAD, UMR MOISA, Montpellier.
 

Nicaragua, the Food Crisis, and the Future of Smallholder Agriculture

This thesis assesses evidence of the relationship between farm size and both productivity and profitability, using Nicaragua as a study case. Even though the outcome might seem already known, the conclusions are quite interesting, especially for policymakers. Through three essays, including quantitative estimations, the results provide support for an inverse relationship between farm size and productivity, and concludes that the allocation of land – which could be described as unequal – is a result of an efficient distribution given the context.
 
Full citation: Henderson, H. 2012. Nicaragua, the Food Crisis, and the Future of Smallholder Agriculture. PhD Thesis. American University, Washington, DC.
 

The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

This study analyses the impact of infrastructure investment on rural development in the specific context of Peru. The research demonstrates that the social returns of a specific infrastructure investment are higher if it takes place in combination with other investments. Moreover, as infrastructure tends to diminish transaction costs, market efficiency improves. Nevertheless, although the results suggest that economic growth is enhanced through these types of investments, inequality rates tend to increase because the individuals who can take greater advantage of these investments are the ones that were better off in the first place. These results from the particular experience of Peru may be useful when considering policy design in rural areas in other contexts.
 
Full citation: Escobal, J. 2005. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru. PhD Thesis. Wageningen University, Wageningen.
 

A Spot of Coffee in Crisis: Nicaraguan Smallholder Cooperatives, Fair Trade Networks, and Gendered Empowerment

This paper examines the ways three smallholder cooperatives participating in Fair Trade and conventional commodity networks responded to the post-1999 coffee crisis in northern Nicaragua, with a specific focus on questions of gender and empowerment. The author conducts an analysis of gendered empowerment processes, linking historical cooperative organising practices and government policy with Fair Trade networks, showing how different combinations can enhance or inhibit individual and collective empowerment. It is shown that in the midst of the crisis, cooperatives connected to Fair Trade networks found opportunities to build their organisations, while most small-scale farmers seemed to have suffered a decline in their sense of empowerment. From the three cooperatives studied, the women’s Fair Trade cooperative had the highest level of individual and collective empowerment.
 
Full citation: Bacon, C. M. 2010. A Spot of Coffee in Crisis: Nicaraguan Smallholder Cooperatives, Fair Trade Networks, and Gendered Empowerment. Latin American Perspectives 37: 50-71.
 

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Other ELLA knowledge materials relating to Smallholder Farmers and Rural Development:

GUIDES AND BRIEFS

SPOTLIGHT SUMMARIES

LEARNING ALLIANCE HIGHLIGHTS

RESEARCH PAPERS

NON-ELLA PUBLICATIONS

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